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Newsletter: All 2020 data available, STF Handbook for recharging infra roll-out and more

Created: 2021-02-16 20:03 | Last change: 2021-03-03 15:56

This edition’s highlights


  • In this edition, we cover the announcement of the publication of the full report and the handbook for the Sustainable Transport Forum (STF), with recommendations for the planning and roll-out of public recharging infrastructure in urban areas and the setup of the STF sub-groups.
  • New country comparison graphs have been added to the EAFO portal.
  • We’re signalling record EV sales figures across Europe, we look at the electrification rates in several segments on the continent.
  • Furthermore, we’re having a closer look at the bestselling PEV models of December and providing the main highlights of the month.
  • We take a look at the hottest EV markets in Europe, both in volume and market share.
  • We also analyse the current status of the recharging infrastructure and the ratios of number of EV’s vs. the amount of public recharging points.


EAFO newsletters are issued on a regular basis with highlights from the market as well as special analyses.
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STF Recommendations for public authorities on procuring, awarding concessions, licenses or granting support for electric recharging infrastructure

The European Green Deal aims to make Europe climate neutral by 2050, boosting the economy through green technology, creating a sustainable industry and transport, and cutting pollution. The Smart and Sustainable Mobility Strategy proposes a variety of actions, including the expectation that a possible fleet of up to 13 million electric vehicles in 2025 will require the number of publicly accessible recharging points to grow from approximately 200,000 in 2020 to at least 1 million in 2025.

In this context, it can reasonably be expected that most, if not all, municipal, regional and national public authorities in the EU will at some point in time be required to publicly procure, award concessions or grant government support for the construction and operation of recharging points in their territories.

To support them on this endeavour, the Sustainable Transport Forum (STF) expert group has drawn up a set of recommendations for public authorities procuring, awarding concessions, licenses and/or granting support for electric recharging infrastructure for passenger cars and vans (M1 and N1 category of vehicles according to UNECE standards).

The Handbook highlights the main findings, recommendations and examples of the STF Recommendations adopted by the STF Plenary of 2020.

The STF Recommendations are meant to provide practical guidelines for public authorities that are either looking to procure recharging infrastructure or to award concessions for their roll-out and/or operation, possibly linked to the granting of government support. The Recommendations offer an overview of different deployment approaches across the EU, and identify some best and innovative practices by frontrunners. Taking account of different deployment speeds and needs, the STF developed a set of minimum recommendations that help all public authorities deploy fit-for-future and consumer-friendly recharging infrastructure at the lowest possible public cost. The summary Handbook provides off-the-shelf best practice examples, ready for use by national, regional and local authorities throughout the EU.

Please find the downloadable proofread and edited final version of the STF Recommendations Report and the Handbook here.

On top of this, DG MOVE has initiated the setup of three STF sub-groups

In accordance with Article 5(2) of the Decision establishing the STF and in accordance with Article 8 of the Decision renewing the STF, DG MOVE may set up sub-groups for the purpose of examining specific questions on the basis of terms of reference defined by DG MOVE. Sub-groups report to the STF plenary. They must be dissolved as soon as their mandate is fulfilled.

The following sub-groups are currently active or in the process of being set up:

  • Sub-group on the implementation of Directive 2014/94/EU. This sub-group consists of the Member States only and discusses specific aspects related to the implementation of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive 2014/94/EU.
  • Sub-group on governance and standards for communication exchange in the electromobility ecosystem (with particular focus on ISO 15118-20 and related PKI). This sub-group will propose minimum principles and a governance framework for communication between the electric vehicle and the recharging infrastructure, ensuring interoperability in the whole ecosystem. It will moreover prepare the ground for harmonisation and convergence of electromobility communication standards and protocols.
  • Sub-group on a common data approach for electric mobility and other alternative fuels: building on the work of the Program Support Action (PSA) on data collection related to recharging/refuelling points for alternative fuels and the unique identification codes related to e-Mobility (IDACS).
  • Sub-group on best practices of public authorities to support the deployment of recharging infrastructure. This sub-group, which consists of public authorities mainly, will further the work on the 2020 STF Recommendations for public authorities for procuring, awarding concessions, licences and/or granting support for electric recharging infrastructure, generating a (bi-)annual update to ensure the Recommendations remain relevant for public authorities. The sub-group will moreover look into possibilities to harmonise permitting procedures for alternative fuels infrastructure in the EU.

The final composition of the groups is expected in the coming weeks.

More information on the STF sub-groups can be found here.

New country comparison graphs

To both the ‘EU’ and the ‘EU + UK + EFTA + Turkey’ country sections, a new page has been added, called ‘MS compared’ and resp. ‘Countries compared’.

These two new pages show the historic development and current state of alternative fuels (AF) infrastructure, passenger car (M1) and light commercial vehicles (N1) fleets. Furthermore, graphs have been newly developed to show the AF new registrations market share percentage of the total market sales and the AF percentage of the total fleet, both comparing the AF types with the totals including internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles.



EV market developments  

2020 passenger car EV new registrations market share by segment in Europe


As shown in the graph above, the BEV share is relatively stable across the several segments, at around 5-10%, with the exception being the F-Segment, where the 22% BEV share rests solely on the shoulders of the Porsche Taycan success, with the six-digit priced model registering more units alone than all its PHEV competitors together. In fact, currently the sports sedan is the category Best Seller in the overall market, beating classics like the Mercedes S-Class and BMW 7-Series.

As for PHEVs, its performance varies considerably, from virtually non-existent in the lower end of the market (only recently the Renault Captur PHEV and Jeep Renegade PHEV have started registering sales) to two digit scores in the higher end segments, with the E-Segment hovering at around 16% share, mostly thanks to the PHEV versions of the BMW X5 and Mercedes E-Class.

Looking at each segment Best Sellers, there are a few clear leaders, like the Renault Zoe on the B-Segment, being responsible for roughly 40% of the category BEV registrations, or the Tesla Model 3 having over 68% of BEV deliveries in the D-segment, while the Audi e-Tron has approximately 70% of all BEV sales in the E-segment, and the Volkswagen triplets (VW e-Up, Skoda Citigo EV, Seat e-Mii) have together over half of the A-Segment registrations, highlighting the lack of options on the BEV side across the several segments, compared to the more diversified offer on the PHEV field.



Looking only at the growth rates in each category, the segments growing above average are PHEVs in the C-segment, helped by new additions, like the Volvo XC40 PHEV, or the Mercedes A250e, with plugin hybrids also flourishing in the D-segment, thanks to increased sales from models like the BMW 330e or the Volkswagen Passat GTE, but also the introduction of PHEV versions of popular models, like the Mercedes GLC or Skoda Superb.

The fastest growing segment on the BEV field are the city cars of the A-segment, with the bulk of growth coming from the Volkswagen triplets, that saw their sales jump 10-fold regarding the previous year.

On the other hand, in a context of a fast-growing market, it’s worth noticing that plug-in hybrids in the F-segment have fallen 22% YoY in 2020, and while some of this drop can be attributed to regular market forces (slowing demand in the overall market, and Best Sellers like the Mercedes S-Class waiting for a new generation), the Porsche Taycan success could have also been a decisive element in this poor performance.

BEVs in the D-segment have also grown below expectations (+16% YoY), as the new entrants to the category (Polestar 2, Mercedes EQC) were barely able to compensate for the sales drop of the Tesla Model 3.

EV Sales in Europe

  • xEV Passenger car sales have surpassed 278,000 units in December, a new record, leading to a record plug-in market share of 21%, helping the 2020 registrations to grow 142% compared to the same period last year. Expect sales to continue in growing in the coming months, with the introduction of new models and improved versions of existing ones. It should also be noted that several potentially popular EV models have limited availability, while other consumers are waiting for newer models which already have been announced.
  • In December, registrations of all-electric vehicles (164.816) were significantly above those of plug-in hybrids (114,061), with BEVs having 12% of the overall market (9% for PHEVs), while BEV registrations grew 224% regarding December 2019, while PHEVs were at an even higher pace (347%) in the same period, with plug-in hybrids scoring their fourth record performance in a row. The full 2020 numbers show 726.000 BEVs registered (and 633.000 PHEVs), corresponding to a 5.7% share of the overall market for BEVs, a significant departure from the 2.2% of 2019.
  • The Best Selling BEV in December was the recent Volkswagen ID.3, with some 28.000 units, being immediately followed the Tesla Model 3 (25.000 units), with the 2020 #1 EV in Europe, the Renault Zoe, ending December in 3rd, with some 16.000 registrations, while on the PHEV side, the Best Seller was the Renault Captur PHEV (6.135 units), ending ahead of the 2020 Best Selling Plug-in Hybrid, the Mercedes A250e, that had 5.507 units in December, with Mercedes placing another model in the December PHEV podium, as the Mercedes GLC300e/de was #3 in December, with 5.214 units.
  • Looking at FCEVs, this category had a record 288 passenger vehicle registrations in December, with the Toyota Mirai (212 units) largely beating the Hyundai Nexo (76) in that month. In the overall year, Fuel Cells ended with 847 registrations, a 39% increase over the previous year, with the recent peak of the Japanese model not being enough to remove the Hyundai model from the leadership, with the Korean Fuel Cell vehicle ending the year with 451 registrations.

Hottest EV markets in Europe

Leading European countries for BEV market share in 2020 were: Norway (49%), Iceland (25%) and the Netherlands (12%)


Leading countries for PHEV market share in Europe are: Iceland (25%), Norway (23%) and Sweden (23%);


Looking at FCEV volumes, the leading markets are Germany (282 deliveries), followed by France (211) and the Netherlands, with 148 registrations.


Evolution of BEV registrations in Europe

Shown in the graph below, after a steady growth line since 2011, 2019 signalled a significant increase in BEV’s sold, that was exponentiated last year, with surging sales in the second half of the year.


Evolution of BEV market shares in Europe

The same can be observed regarding BEV market shares, with the 2020 surge being highlighted by falling sales in the overall market, increasing even further the BEV share of the overall market.


Share Evolution of the BEV Fleet in Europe

At 0.58 percent, the share of BEVs in the total fleet of passenger cars in Europe is still small, but we should see it get close to 1% by the end of 2021


Recharging Infrastructure - Market developments

In 2020, the total number of installed public recharging points in Europe exceeded the amount of 285.000, of which the 27 EU Member States reached 225.000, which seems to indicate we are well on our way to reach the European Green Deal objective for public recharging infrastructure deployment of one million in 2025.

However, as can be concluded from the numbers on the map below, on January 1st 2021, more than 190.000 or 66% of the total normal and high-power public recharging points in Europe are accounted for in only 4 countries (The Netherlands, Germany, France and the United Kingdom). This clearly indicates there’s still a lot of development potential in other European countries.



To provide more insight into the differences per country, we split the numbers by public normal (P ≤ 22kW) and public high-power (P>22kW) recharging points:


From the top 5 countries with the highest number of high-power recharging points, three countries belong to the five largest countries (land area) of the EEA, while the number 2 in the list, the United Kingdom, is the 9th largest country.

To provide a better method to compare countries, an interesting metric is to take a closer look at the number of high-power rechargers and the amount of highway kilometres per country.


In order to have the possibility to make long trips with a BEV, drivers need to have high-power recharging stations along the highways, so they can cover large distances without having to stop for several hours to recharge their vehicles.

Looking at the number of high-power recharging points per 100 km highway, one can see that some countries still has a long way to go, in order to have a sufficiently dense recharging infrastructure that enables long trips on their highways.

Also, we should notice that most of these stations are usually concentrated around large urban areas, so even when some countries have a significantly better ratio, it will still be complicated to travel from city to city across the country, because high-power recharging points en-route will be scarce.

And while a number of the countries shown here have fairly small land areas, making this ratio less important, there are others, like Spain, Turkey, Greece, Bulgaria or Portugal, where long distance travel is an important issue, given their main cities are hundreds of kilometres apart, highlighting the importance of a dense and reliable high-powered charging infrastructure en-route.


Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) per public recharging point

Besides the amount of high-power recharging points per 100 kilometre highway, another metric that provides more insight in the availability of public recharging points, is the amount of BEV’s per public recharging point.

Looking at this map, that shows the number of BEVs with the amount of public normal & high-power recharging points, we can see that the three countries with the worst ratios are Norway, Portugal and Iceland. Per BEV, these countries have the lowest amount of public recharging points.


Furthermore, in these countries, queueing up for a high-power recharging point is relatively common. The reason for this could lie in the fact that these countries do not have enough public normal recharging points for the fast growing BEV population and people cannot recharge while having their car parked at home or at work, and therefore instead having the need for high-power recharging to cover their daily trips.

Of course, high-power recharging points are also needed to make sure long distances can be travelled, although in this case the most critical aspect isn’t so much the number of high-power recharging sites, but also how many recharging points are available at each of them to prevent queueing and their strategically chosen locations.


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