Download the full NPF documents:
English translation: sweden npf.en.pdf
English translation: sweden npf amendment.en.pdf
Original language: sweden npf.pdf
Original language: sweden npf amendment.pdf
Download the National Implementation Report 2019:
NPF highlights and 2019 NPF reporting on implementation highlights
On this page, we provide relevant information on the topic of alternative fuels vehicles, infrastructure or support measures as provided in the National Policy Framework (NPF) as well as the 2019 Reporting by the Member States on the NPF implementation.
According to Art. 10(1) of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive, each Member State shall submit to the European Commission a report on the implementation of its National Policy Framework on a tri-annual basis, and for the first time by or before 18 November 2019. Those Reports must contain a description of the measures taken in the reporting Member State in support of alternative fuels infrastructure build-up. An overview of the Reports notified by [Member State] and received by the Commission to date is provided here below (download section), including an English translation where applicable.
The highlights for all National Policy Framework follow more or less the same structure: we first explain the modelling approach where one has been provided, we then explain the objectives or key focus areas of the NPF and then provide an overview of the key messages for those alternative fuels with distinct infrastructure requirements for which Member States had to develop national targets according to the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (electricity, hydrogen, LPG, CNG and LNG - therefore not covering for instance biofuels or synthetic fuels. The highlights are extracts from the NPF documents. These highlights should not be considered summaries of the NPFs. For a full and complete overview, we advise to read the NPF documents.
Highlights 2019 Reporting on the NPF implementation
Sweden’s ambition is to become one of the first fossil-free developed nations in the world. Sweden will have zero net emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by 2045, and will attain negative emissions thereafter. Greenhouse gas emissions from domestic transport (excluding domestic aviation included under EU ETS) shall be reduced by at least 70% by no later than 2030 compared with 2010. In 2017, domestic transport accounted for 31% of Sweden’s greenhouse gas emissions. A fossil-free vehicle fleet requires a combination of different measures: a transport-efficient society, improved energy efficiency and a shift to renewable fuels. Measures for alternative fuels and associated infrastructure development will be targeted at vehicles, fuels and infrastructure, so that these areas can be developed simultaneously.
The Government initiative ‘Fossil-free Sweden’ was launched in 2016 with the aim of strengthening the Government’s dialogue with business, municipalities, other public actors and civil society. The Swedish Government has appointed a national coordinator for Fossil-free Sweden, serving as a link between the actors and the Swedish Government to remove barriers and create the conditions for a more rapid reduction in emissions.
The initiative has now brought together more than 400 actors and is open to anyone fulfilling the declaration produced. The actors participating in the initiative share the view that the world must become fossil-free and that Sweden must take the lead in this work. The declaration means actors undertake to also demonstrate specific measures for reducing emissions. Industry wide road maps are developed under the initiative with the aim of promoting business opportunities for companies and industries to become fossil- free. A total of 13 such road maps have been presented by various industries during 2018-2019. The road maps form a good basis for constructive interaction between the State and business in relation to common climate goals. Several road maps concern alternative fuels, particularly the road maps for the aviation industry, the shipping industry and the haulage industry, all of which highlight the importance of alternative fuels to reduce emissions. Additional road maps are being developed, including for the automotive industry, and the initiative launched 27 proposals for fossil-free competition in October 2019.
HVO100, road fuel gas and FAME100 are the three most common alternative fuels (to diesel MK1 and petrol MK1) on the Swedish market113. Supplies of HVO100 increased sharply during 2016 and 2017, but fell somewhat during 2018, where supplied as a pure fuel. HVO100 accounted for 4.6% of the total fuel consumption during 2018. Sales of FAME reduced during 2016 and 2017 before sharply increasing in 2018 because the fuel took a market share from HVO100 following the introduction of the reduction obligation114. Supplies of E85 have declined steadily since 2012 and constituted less than 1% of the supplied fuel in 2017, although the quantity of E85 rose somewhat in 2018.
Municipalities may introduce environmental zones to improve the air quality of an area. The provisions on environmental zones can be found in the Road Traffic Ordinance (1998:1276) and addresses the types of vehicles that may be driven through particularly environmentally sensitive areas. The penalty for breaching the regulations is a fine of SEK 1 000 and liability for this lies entirely with the driver. The purpose of the environmental zones is to improve air quality, reduce noise and to stimulate the technological development of the vehicle fleet. Environmental zones may only be introduced by municipalities in particularly environmentally sensitive areas in densely populated areas. The requirements made of vehicles in order that they may be driven in an environmental zone varies depending on the class of environmental zone introduced.
Electricity: The Swedish Energy Agency has performed sensitivity analyses to estimate the effects of the updated emissions requirements made by the EU. The analysis investigated one case with a 30% emissions reduction with an updated driving cycle from 2021 and one case with a 50% emissions reduction with an updated driving cycle from 2021 and an increased potential for electrification. These analyses indicate a larger than anticipated percentage of rechargeable electric vehicles94. The sensitivity analysis estimated the number of electric vehicles in 2030 as being almost 180 000 for the case with a 30% emissions reduction and around 300 000 for the case with a 50% emissions reduction.
Non-road mobile machinery, Electrified mining transport in an Arctic climate
In 2018, the Swedish Energy Agency decided to grant aid to Boliden Mineral AB corresponding to 24% of the eligible costs up to a maximum of SEK 9 725 00060. The aid was provided to implement the project Electrified mining transport in an Arctic climate during the period 2018-2019. The aim of the project is to conduct a demonstration project for a section of electrified transport in a mine with overhead contact wires. This is to provide a decision-making basis for converting mining trucks to electric operation.
There are also several electric powered vessels, e.g. two ferries on the route between Helsingborg and Helsingør (ForSea) and the Swedish Transport Administration’s electrically powered cable ferries. In March 2019, the Swedish Transport Administration’s shipping company commissioned a hybrid ferry that can run on electricity (batteries) or synthetic diesel.
Natural gas – LNG: There has been increasing interest among vehicle manufacturers in liquefied methane (LNG/LBG) as a fuel for heavy vehicles, and this has also been granted aid under Climate Leap. In total, this concerns aid for around 400 heavy vehicles that run on liquefied biogas (LNG/LBG).
Ports with access to LNG have increased in number in recent years, and the requirements for LNG bunkering have become clearer since the national guidelines for the bunkering of liquid methane were completed in 2018. In 2018, bunkering was available in 11 ports and a further seven ports were added to this during the first quarter of 2019.
Vessels that can use LNG which routinely call at Swedish ports are Viking Grace (Viking Line, with another LNG ferry ordered for delivery in 2021), Destination Gotland ferry m/s Visborg (with another ferry ordered for delivery in 2020), in addition to a number of cargo vessels running on LNG. LNG vessels can also run on MGO (marine gas oil) as a backup.
Highlights NPF (date of adoption: November 2016)
Climate change is a key issue of our time and one of the top priority issues for the Government. The Government’s climate policy means that Sweden is to be a pioneering nation and become one of the first fossil-free welfare nations in the world. Long-term governance and ambitious targets are needed for a continued switch.
The All-Party Parliamentary Committee on Environmental Objectives was tasked in 2014 with proposing how a climate-policy framework and a strategy for a combined, long-term policy on climate change could be formulated. The All-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives presented its proposals in June 2016, proposing inter alia a long-term target for Sweden not to have any net emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by 2045, and to attain negative emissions thereafter. The All-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives also proposes a target for emissions from domestic transport (except for emissions from domestic aviation, which is included in EU ETS), which are to be at least 70 % lower than the 2010 level by 2030. The Government plans to present a Bill to the Riksdag at the beginning of 2017 concerning a climate-policy framework and new targets, based on the proposals presented by the All-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives.
Reduced emissions from the transport sector are crucial if Sweden is to attain its long-term climate targets and become one of the world's first fossil-free prosperous nations. To achieve this, Sweden has to have a fossil-free vehicle fleet. A fossil-free vehicle fleet requires a combination of several different measures: a transport-efficient society, improved energy efficiency and a shift to renewable fuels.
A significant change is the increasing share of biofuels in the road-transport sector in recent years. The preliminary share of biofuels, based on energy content, was 14.7% in 2015. The share of renewable energy in the whole transport sector in 2015 according to the Swedish Energy Agency's preliminary calculations was 23.1%, using the method of calculation in the Renewables Directive. This is an increase of 4.4 percentage points compared with 2014. The Swedish recharging infrastructure is also growing, among other things with financial support from the Government's climate investment programme, known as the Climate Leap, which also provides support for refuelling points for renewable fuels.
Electricity: A sharp relative increase in the number of rechargeable electric cars is currently taking place. The number of rechargeable electric vehicles doubled between 2014 and 2015, and this rate of increase has, in principle, continued in 2016. There were around 24 800 rechargeable electric vehicles in Sweden in September 2016, approximately two-thirds of these being plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and one-third pure electric vehicles (EVs). The number of trucks that can run on electricity is around 1 200. An electric road is a road where the supply of power to propel the vehicle takes place continuously during the vehicle’s journey. In the short term, the concept of electric roads is of particular interest for heavy goods vehicles and buses that cannot be supplied with electricity solely from batteries. Sweden is the first country in the world to carry out tests with dynamic transmission of electricity to heavy goods vehicles on public roads. A two-kilometre-long electrified test strip was opened on the E16 road outside Sandviken in June 2016.
At present there are shore-side electricity supply installations at the ports of Gothenburg, Helsingborg, Karlskrona, Karlshamn, Luleå, Malmö, Piteå, Stockholm, Trelleborg and Ystad, among others. To be allowed to undertake port operations, the operator is required to have an environmental permit. It is common for requirements for the provision of a shore-side electricity supply to be set in the environmental permit. The purpose of the requirements is to create the necessary basis for the use of a shore-side electricity supply with the aim of reducing air pollution in ports.
In addition, Sweden has applied a reduced rate of energy tax since November 2011 for electricity supplied to ships in port (shore-side electricity supply).
Seven of Swedavia AB’s airports have provision for supplying stationary aircraft through an electrically connected Ground Power Unit (GPU) at all aprons. At two of the airports all the aprons except one have an electrically connected GPU, and at one airport two-thirds of the aprons have electrical connections.
Hydrogen: In October 2016 there were two refuelling points for hydrogen gas, in Gothenburg and at Stockholm- Arlanda Airport. It is planned that two new hydrogen gas stations will be opened in the autumn of 2016, in Sandviken and Mariestad, while a former station in Malmö has been closed. There is a mobile hydrogen gas refuelling point in Arjeplog during the winter season. Ten hydrogen gas vehicles are registered in Sweden at present.
CNG: Road fuel gas in Sweden consists of fossil natural gas, biogas or blends of the two. There has been a small increase in the use of road fuel gas in recent years. Its use appears to have stagnated somewhat in 2015, however. The share of biogas and natural gas varies geographically, principally due to regional factors, such as access to the natural gas network, production, local networks, upgrading facilities, etc. The fixed distribution network for natural gas in Sweden is concentrated on parts of the west coast. The share of biogas in road fuel gas in 2015 was around 70 % as an average across the country. Almost 25 % of all buses in public transport are adapted to run on methane gas/road fuel gas. The proportion of cars that can run on road fuel gas remained below one per cent throughout the period from 2006 to 2015. Just over one per cent of light commercial vehicles can run on road fuel gas.
LNG: A new aspect in recent years is that liquefied natural gas (LNG) has started to be used as a fuel for heavy goods vehicles and buses and as a bunker fuel in shipping. There are no official statistics yet on the proportion of compressed (CNG) and liquefied gas (LNG).
There are LNG terminals at present in Nynäshamn and Lysekil. LNG is transported from the Nynäshamn terminal to the port of Stockholm by truck, and bunkering then takes place with a bunkering vessel. A further LNG terminal is under construction at the port of Gothenburg. There are currently two vessels capable of running on LNG that call at Swedish ports. These are the cruise ship Viking Grace, which operates between Stockholm and Turku in Finland, and the cargo ship Ternsund, which operates in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.