Download the full NPF documents:
English translation: sweden npf.en.pdf
English translation: sweden npf amendment.en.pdf
Original language: sweden npf.pdf
Original language: sweden npf amendment.pdf
On this page, we provide relevant information on the topic of alternative fuels vehicles, infrastructure or support measures as provided in the National Policy Framework (NPF), in principle as an extract from the NPF, with some additions to give context where necessary. These highlights should not be considered summaries of the NPFs. For a full and complete overview, we advise to read the NPF document itself.
The highlights for all National Policy Framework follow more or less the same structure: we first explain the modelling approach where one has been provided, we then explain the objectives or key focus areas of the NPF and then provide an overview of the key messages for those alternative fuels with distinct infrastructure requirements for which Member States had to develop national targets according to the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (electricity, hydrogen, LPG, CNG and LNG - therefore not covering for instance LPG, biofuels or synthetic fuels.
Sweden: adopted November 2016
Climate change is a key issue of our time and one of the top priority issues for the Government. The Government’s climate policy means that Sweden is to be a pioneering nation and become one of the first fossil-free welfare nations in the world. Long-term governance and ambitious targets are needed for a continued switch.
The All-Party Parliamentary Committee on Environmental Objectives was tasked in 2014 with proposing how a climate-policy framework and a strategy for a combined, long-term policy on climate change could be formulated. The All-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives presented its proposals in June 2016, proposing inter alia a long-term target for Sweden not to have any net emissions of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere by 2045, and to attain negative emissions thereafter. The All-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives also proposes a target for emissions from domestic transport (except for emissions from domestic aviation, which is included in EU ETS), which are to be at least 70 % lower than the 2010 level by 2030. The Government plans to present a Bill to the Riksdag at the beginning of 2017 concerning a climate-policy framework and new targets, based on the proposals presented by the All-Party Committee on Environmental Objectives.
Reduced emissions from the transport sector are crucial if Sweden is to attain its long-term climate targets and become one of the world's first fossil-free prosperous nations. To achieve this, Sweden has to have a fossil-free vehicle fleet. A fossil-free vehicle fleet requires a combination of several different measures: a transport-efficient society, improved energy efficiency and a shift to renewable fuels.
A significant change is the increasing share of biofuels in the road-transport sector in recent years. The preliminary share of biofuels, based on energy content, was 14.7% in 2015. The share of renewable energy in the whole transport sector in 2015 according to the Swedish Energy Agency's preliminary calculations was 23.1%, using the method of calculation in the Renewables Directive. This is an increase of 4.4 percentage points compared with 2014. The Swedish recharging infrastructure is also growing, among other things with financial support from the Government's climate investment programme, known as the Climate Leap, which also provides support for refuelling points for renewable fuels.
A sharp relative increase in the number of rechargeable electric cars is currently taking place. The number of rechargeable electric vehicles doubled between 2014 and 2015, and this rate of increase has, in principle, continued in 2016. There were around 24 800 rechargeable electric vehicles in Sweden in September 2016, approximately two-thirds of these being plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and one-third pure electric vehicles (EVs). The number of trucks that can run on electricity is around 1 200. An electric road is a road where the supply of power to propel the vehicle takes place continuously during the vehicle’s journey. In the short term, the concept of electric roads is of particular interest for heavy goods vehicles and buses that cannot be supplied with electricity solely from batteries. Sweden is the first country in the world to carry out tests with dynamic transmission of electricity to heavy goods vehicles on public roads. A two-kilometre-long electrified test strip was opened on the E16 road outside Sandviken in June 2016.
At present there are shore-side electricity supply installations at the ports of Gothenburg, Helsingborg, Karlskrona, Karlshamn, Luleå, Malmö, Piteå, Stockholm, Trelleborg and Ystad, among others. To be allowed to undertake port operations, the operator is required to have an environmental permit. It is common for requirements for the provision of a shore-side electricity supply to be set in the environmental permit. The purpose of the requirements is to create the necessary basis for the use of a shore-side electricity supply with the aim of reducing air pollution in ports.
In addition, Sweden has applied a reduced rate of energy tax since November 2011 for electricity supplied to ships in port (shore-side electricity supply).
Seven of Swedavia AB’s airports have provision for supplying stationary aircraft through an electrically connected Ground Power Unit (GPU) at all aprons. At two of the airports all the aprons except one have an electrically connected GPU, and at one airport two-thirds of the aprons have electrical connections.
In October 2016 there were two refuelling points for hydrogen gas, in Gothenburg and at Stockholm- Arlanda Airport. It is planned that two new hydrogen gas stations will be opened in the autumn of 2016, in Sandviken and Mariestad, while a former station in Malmö has been closed. There is a mobile hydrogen gas refuelling point in Arjeplog during the winter season. Ten hydrogen gas vehicles are registered in Sweden at present.
Road fuel gas in Sweden consists of fossil natural gas, biogas or blends of the two. There has been a small increase in the use of road fuel gas in recent years. Its use appears to have stagnated somewhat in 2015, however. The share of biogas and natural gas varies geographically, principally due to regional factors, such as access to the natural gas network, production, local networks, upgrading facilities, etc. The fixed distribution network for natural gas in Sweden is concentrated on parts of the west coast. The share of biogas in road fuel gas in 2015 was around 70 % as an average across the country. Almost 25 % of all buses in public transport are adapted to run on methane gas/road fuel gas. The proportion of cars that can run on road fuel gas remained below one per cent throughout the period from 2006 to 2015. Just over one per cent of light commercial vehicles can run on road fuel gas.
A new aspect in recent years is that liquefied natural gas (LNG) has started to be used as a fuel for heavy goods vehicles and buses and as a bunker fuel in shipping. There are no official statistics yet on the proportion of compressed (CNG) and liquefied gas (LNG).
There are LNG terminals at present in Nynäshamn and Lysekil. LNG is transported from the Nynäshamn terminal to the port of Stockholm by truck, and bunkering then takes place with a bunkering vessel. A further LNG terminal is under construction at the port of Gothenburg. There are currently two vessels capable of running on LNG that call at Swedish ports. These are the cruise ship Viking Grace, which operates between Stockholm and Turku in Finland, and the cargo ship Ternsund, which operates in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea.