Download the full NPF documents:
English translation: spain npf.en.pdf
Original language: spain npf.pdf
Download the National Implementation Report 2019:
NPF highlights and 2019 NPF reporting on implementation highlights
On this page, we provide relevant information on the topic of alternative fuels vehicles, infrastructure or support measures as provided in the National Policy Framework (NPF) as well as the 2019 Reporting by the Member States on the NPF implementation.
According to Art. 10(1) of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive, each Member State shall submit to the European Commission a report on the implementation of its National Policy Framework on a tri-annual basis, and for the first time by or before 18 November 2019. Those Reports must contain a description of the measures taken in the reporting Member State in support of alternative fuels infrastructure build-up. An overview of the Reports notified by [Member State] and received by the Commission to date is provided here below (download section), including an English translation where applicable.
The highlights for all National Policy Framework follow more or less the same structure: we first explain the modelling approach where one has been provided, we then explain the objectives or key focus areas of the NPF and then provide an overview of the key messages for those alternative fuels with distinct infrastructure requirements for which Member States had to develop national targets according to the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (electricity, hydrogen, LPG, CNG and LNG - therefore not covering for instance biofuels or synthetic fuels. The highlights are extracts from the NPF documents. These highlights should not be considered summaries of the NPFs. For a full and complete overview, we advise to read the NPF documents.
Highlights 2019 Reporting on the NPF implementation
Spain’s National Policy Framework2 was approved by the Council of Ministers during its meeting on 9 December 2016 as well as Royal Decree 639/2016 of 9 December 2016, which transposed the abovementioned Directive 2014/94/EU. Since the NPF was published in 2016, the use of alternative fuels has varied significantly. In the past three years, the evolution of the vehicles, registrations, projects to deploy alternative fuels infrastructure and the measures of the entire administration clearly show society’s growing interest in these new more sustainable and environmentally friendly forms of mobility.
Electricity: In September 2019 Spain had a fleet of 69,497 electric vehicles, of which 76% are pure electric vehicles (BEVs), 22% are plug-in hybrids (PHEVs) and only 2% are extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs). Passenger cars account for 55% of these, followed by motorcycles (16%), mopeds (12%), vans and car-based vehicles (6%).
Electric vehicle models manufactured in Spain: three models of electric vans are currently manufactured in Spain (Peugeot Partner, Citroen Berlingo and Nissan e-NV200), the Irizar-ie bus, quadricycles (Little Electric Cars) as well as motorcycles and mopeds (Torrot, Scutum, Volta, Rieju, Bultaco and GoingGreen). Moreover, Spanish factories have recently been awarded three passenger car models (Peugeot 2008, Citroen C4 and Opel Corsa EV) and a van (Mercedes eVito). The SEAT factory in Martorell will develop a platform for small electric passenger cars (small BEV) and Renault will manufacture and assemble batteries in Valladolid. In addition, the plug-in electric versions of the Ford Kuga (late 2019), SEAT León and SEAT Formentor (both for 2020) have been awarded.
In October 2017, the European Commission promoted the European Battery Alliance with the aim of creating a competitive European industry along the entire battery value chain. The main agents in this industry (companies, associations, innovation centres and Member States) take part in this alliance, and Spain is represented by the Secretariat- General for Industry and SMEs. In 2017, this Secretariat led the formation of a working group with the interested Spanish entities from the battery sector to define the industrial opportunities for this industry. This group currently comprises over 70 entities and the last meeting took place on 14 January 2019 at a conference organised by the Ministry of Industry, Trade and Tourism.
One of the main problems faced by electric mobility is the lack of information on the charge point network throughout Spain. Thus, not only the number of charge points accessible to the public is important; it is also essential to have reliable and real- time information about these points. Therefore, Spain is participating through the State Secretariat for Energy in a European project (Programme Support Action – PSA) to identify charge points. The aim of this project is to identify each charge point and gather both static (location, number or connector type, etc.) and dynamic (point availability) information. The information is due to be included in the current geographical information platform from the Ministry for Ecological Transition (geoportalgasolineras.es) together with information on other fuels, which in turn will be present on the National Traffic and Mobility Access Point (nap.dgt.es), in accordance with the implementing legislation for Directive 2010/40/EU.
Electricity (maritime): Spain currently has 2 electricity supply points for ships and ferries, in Melilla and Motril respectively. The commissioning of 6 supply points is expected in the second half of 2019: in the Canary Islands (2 in the port of San Sebastián de La Gomera, 2 in the port of Santa Cruz de La Palma and 2 in the port of Santa Cruz de Tenerife).
The ‘OPS Master Plan for Spanish Ports 2017-2019’ project, financed by the CEF and led by the National Ports Authority, is developing pilot initiatives in Palma de Mallorca and the Canary Islands (in the ports of La Luz-Las Palmas and Santa Cruz de Tenerife); completion could take until 2020. In addition, we are analysing the feasibility of increasing the provision of supply points in other ports, geared towards three kinds of fleet: ferries, container ships and cruise ships. Since 2019, a reduction of the tax on provision of shore-side electricity has applied; in practice, this has almost reduced it to zero.
Hydrogen: At present, the fuel cell vehicle fleet in Spain is linked to demonstration projects.
Spain has four hydrogen stations in operation at 350 bar (in Seville, Huesca, Puertollano-Ciudad Real and Albacete) and it is planned to upgrade the Puertollano station to 700 bar during 2020. In June 2019, Enagás, Toyota Spain and Urbaser signed an agreement to build a hydrogen refuelling station in the northern area of Madrid (Avenida de Manoteras) at 700 bar, which is planned to provide service to an initial fleet of 12 Toyota Mirai passenger cars that will be used by companies participating in this pioneering initiative in Spain.
In January 2019, an agreement was signed to analyse the viability of the Power to Green Hydrogen – Mallorca reindustrialisation project, which will entail the construction of a renewable hydrogen production plant through electrolysis associated with a photovoltaic park. It is anticipated that part of the hydrogen produced will be used by a fleet of municipal buses and there are plans to build a 700-bar hydrogen station. It is promoted by Enagás, Acciona, Redexis Gas, CEMEX, the Government of the Autonomous Community of the Balearic Islands and IDAE. Work is currently being done to develop (1) the injection of hydrogen into the gas network as well as to define what is considered ‘green hydrogen’, (2) the associated guarantee of renewable origin system, (3) prototypes and conversion of hydrogen vehicles and (4) hydrogen generation with CO2 and (5) experimental developments of biohydrogen34.
LPG: Spain has a fleet of 61,150 LPG vehicles and 636 LPG refuelling stations spread over all the autonomous communities. The evolution of LPG since 2016 – when the National Policy Framework was approved – has not gone as quickly as expected. It was starting from a market that was much more mature than the other alternative fuels, where consumers were already familiar with LPG and it was already used in passenger cars, mainly intended for taxis and public use in general. Moreover, LPG continues to be a solution exclusively for light-duty and converted heavy-duty vehicles as heavy-duty vehicle manufacturers are still not developing dedicated engines. Furthermore, the manufacturers of light-duty vehicles with dedicated engines are reducing their LPG models. In this respect, in 2019 Opel stopped manufacturing in Spain its three LPG light-duty vehicle models.
Natural gas: As at 31 December 2018, the fleet of natural gas vehicles comprised 16,269 CNG vehicles and 1,208 LNG lorries. This represents a significant increase compared to 2016, the NFP approval date, as had been estimated. In that regard, it was forecast to move from a CNG fleet comprising mostly urban lorries (rubbish, last-mile distribution, etc.) to see significant increases in passenger cars and urban buses for public transport. The estimates have been met in both segments. Firstly, CNG passenger cars currently have a purchase price equal to that of petrol passenger cars; their range has increased up to 400 to 450 km. Meanwhile, the LNG fleet, consisting almost entirely of lorries, has increased exponentially thanks to the fact that natural gas is currently emerging as the only alternative to diesel, and also because the baseline levels were practically nil (only 18 LNG lorries in 2012). Therefore, in their plans for renewing vehicle stock, fleets of lorries are including LNG as an alternative to meet the increasingly demanding requirements on reducing CO2 emissions and local pollutants. In addition, service station developers have made considerable investments to build CNG and LNG refuelling points in both urban agglomerations and on main roadways. That said, the recent announcements of possible fossil fuel bans may hurt the development of CNG and LNG. The sale in Spain of LNG buses is an important milestone for sustainable mobility in the passenger transport sector, especially in long-distance journeys. In February 2019, Scania presented the Interlink MD GNL bus in Madrid, powered by liquefied natural gas. It has a range of 1,000 kilometres with LNG. It is the first medium- and long-distance LNG-powered bus from Scania.
Natural gas (LNG) Maritime: The LNG-powered fleet controlled by Spanish shipowners under Spanish or foreign flags currently comprises three vessels. The Ro-Pax vessel Abel Matutes, that currently covers the Valencia-Palma de Mallorca line, was the first of the Spanish fleet to be converted, although it was only fitted with a gas-powered auxiliary engine (not the main engines). It has been refuelled regularly by TTS (truck-to-ship) since March 2017.
Subsequently, in February 2019, the ferry Hypatia de Alejandría made its first commercial voyage between Barcelona and Palma de Mallorca. This was the first passenger ferry powered by LNG to sail in the Mediterranean. This vessel is 186.5 m in length and has capacity for 810 people, 2,180 linear metres of cargo and 150 cars. In March 2019 the engines of the ferry Nápoles were refitted in the Gibdock shipyards in Gibraltar: it was the first passenger and cargo ferry powered by dual gas engines to be included in the routes between Huelva and the Canary Islands. The vessel, with capacity for 1,600 people, 1,430 linear metres of cargo and 53 passenger cars, can reach a speed of 23 knots. It has a 425 m3 LNG tank that gives it a range of 1,200 miles. In addition to these three vessels that are currently in operation, another eight vessels are being built or converted, and will expand the national LNG-powered fleet between now and 2025.
Highlights NPF (date of adoption: October 2016)
On 26 June 2015 the Spanish Cabinet passed a Decision formally acknowledging the New Energy Vehicle Promotion Strategy (the ‘NEV Strategy’) for the 2014-2020 period. The NEV Strategy forms part of the Agenda for Encouraging Progress in the Spanish Industrial Sector, an action plan containing a set of proposals to improve conditions across all areas of industrial activity in Spain and contribute to the growth of industry, improve competitiveness and increase its share of GDP. The NEV Strategy extends the 2010-2014 New Energy Vehicle Comprehensive Promotion Strategy (launched by the government on 6 April 2010) to all alternative fuels. The Strategy aims to set Spain up as a leading country in the application of alternative fuels to the road transport industry, providing a boost to the industrial sectors associated with the automotive sector, against the backdrop of the energy-related and environmental challenges we are facing today.
Electricity: The energy to be supplied to electric vehicles in 2030 (a hypothetical 2 600 000 vehicles) is not expected to exceed 2.4 % of the total national demand for electricity. This figure is below the threshold of error in long-term demand forecasts. This system is being tested in Spain, with a power point for docked vessels installed at the passenger terminal of the Port of Melilla. Moreover, feasibility studies are being conducted at the ports of Barcelona, Valencia, Palma de Mallorca, Ibiza, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, La Gomera and La Palma. The National Ports Authority has estimated that more than 100 000 tonnes of conventional fuel— fuel oil, marine gas oil, etc. — used while ships are berthed in Spain could theoretically be replaced by around 600 GWh of electricity. Merchant ships are supplied with electricity at 400V, 6.6kV and 11kV. The latter two voltages are international standards and are also applicable at EU level: under Article 4(6) of Directive 2014/94/EU shore- side electricity supply installations must comply with the IEC/ISO/IEEE 80005-1 standard as of 18 November 2017. There are 410 fixed and all-in-one electric power supply units for aircraft in total at Spain’s TEN-T network airports. Except for Seville, practically all Spanish airports that make up the core TEN-T network have 400 Hz fixed power supply infrastructure at aircraft parking bays. As for the airports making up the comprehensive TEN-T network, the following have power supply units for aircraft: A Coruña, Asturias, Fuerteventura, Ibiza, La Palma, Lanzarote, Menorca, Santiago, Seve Ballesteros Santander, Tenerife Norte and Vigo. Therefore, 90 % of Spanish airports forming part of the core TEN-T network, and 38 % of the airports belonging to the comprehensive TEN-T network, have units to supply electricity to aircraft.
Hydrogen: Hydrogen mobility in Spain will begin with the six existing hydrogen stations and four additional stations planned for construction as part of project H2PiyR (POCTEFA-INTERREG initiative). The ten hydrogen stations already planned will allow pilot projects to be carried out in real-life environments, as well as allowing us to assess the feasibility on connections with the other EU countries via France. The aim will be to serve specific market niches (public buses, taxis, company fleets, etc.), giving us a model on the basis of which to define future initiatives under a strategy to establish hydrogen infrastructure nationwide.
Based on the foregoing, preliminary estimates currently suggest that we can expect to have approximately 500 FCEVs on Spanish roads and 20 hydrogen stations by 2020.
CNG: Fleets make up 90 % of all CNG vehicles. Public-service fleets are notable for the use of heavy-duty CNG vehicles, mainly buses and refuse collection lorries, which, according to GASNAM’s estimates, account for 66 % of all CNG vehicles on Spain’s roads. In both CNG and LNG form, natural gas provides less range per unit of volume than conventional fuels. CNG is the ideal option for short journeys and for means of transport with a shorter required range. The European Natural & Bio Gas Vehicle Association (NGVA Europe, 2015) estimates that there will be eight million vehicles powered by natural gas on Europe’s roads by 2020. If the Spanish market develops in line with this forecast, Spain will have approximately 18 000 natural gas vehicles (800 LNG and 17 200 CNG).
LNG: LNG is the option most commonly used for long distances, as it occupies between 2.5 and 3 times less space than CNG. LNG is currently used only in lorries transporting goods over long distances and with large loads (over 26 tonnes).
LNG demand in Spanish ports by vessels, either for propulsion or auxiliary engines, is limited to occasional supplies that have been taking place since July 2012. All these bunkering operations have taken place using tanker lorries (truck-to-ship or TTS supply).
Five of the world’s 77 LNG-powered vessels have berthed in Spanish ports a total of 13 times, requesting LNG bunkering on only seven occasions, with the service being provided successfully on all those occasions. The CORE LNGas Hive — Core Network Corridors and Liquefied Natural Gas Project, which is funded by the European Commission through the Connecting Europe Facility (2014-EU-TM-0732-S), is the most important strategic measure from an institutional point of view aimed at promoting the development of LNG bunkering infrastructure at ports and facilitating market development.
The reality today is that the number of LNG-powered vessels operating worldwide is increasing at an annual rate of between 15 and 25 %, according to the graph shown above. If this trend continues unchanged, we can expect the global figure to rise to between 300 and 700 ships by 2025 and 615-2 150 ships by 2035.