Download the full NPF documents:
English translation: poland npf.en.pdf
Original language: poland npf.pdf
On this page, we provide relevant information on the topic of alternative fuels vehicles, infrastructure or support measures as provided in the National Policy Framework (NPF), in principle as an extract from the NPF, with some additions to give context where necessary. These highlights should not be considered summaries of the NPFs. For a full and complete overview, we advise to read the NPF document itself.
The highlights for all National Policy Framework follow more or less the same structure: we first explain the modelling approach where one has been provided, we then explain the objectives or key focus areas of the NPF and then provide an overview of the key messages for those alternative fuels with distinct infrastructure requirements for which Member States had to develop national targets according to the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (electricity, hydrogen, LPG, CNG and LNG - therefore not covering for instance LPG, biofuels or synthetic fuels.
NPF date of adoption: March 2017
Many institutions and organisations are currently conducting research on different types of alternative fuels that can be used in transport. The Ministry of Energy monitors the development of these fuels very closely and is aware of the progress in the research and the technologies linked to, among other things, the use of hydrogen in transport or the production of methanol from CO2. Nevertheless, the activities carried out in this area to date have focused on the most mature technologies.
Research on different technologies is ongoing, and it cannot be ruled out that, if other alternative fuels are developed and certain technological problems are solved, then strategies will be prepared for developing these technologies in the future. At this stage, however, given the requirements laid down in Directive 2014/94/EU and considering that some technologies are not ready to be deployed commercially, this document sets out specific support instruments for the deployment of infrastructure for electricity and natural gas (CNG and LNG) only, as these instruments have already been put in place on the transport fuels market.
Electricity:The forecast for 2020 is to have 50,000 EVs on the road and 1 million for 2025. It is difficult at the present stage to predict with absolute certainty when the number of electric vehicles will rapidly increase. This increase is forecast to take place between 2021 and 2024, when, in line with the projected trends, electric vehicle technology should have reached a sufficiently advanced state of development.
In the vast majority of cases, shore-side electricity provided to commercial vessels is used to supply power to the vessels’ electric installations while at berth. In Polish maritime ports, electricity can be provided to vessels, but only at low voltage (400 V/50 Hz) and low power (up to 100 kW). Supplying electricity to sea ferries and cruise ships, which require connections with a power input of 3-20 MW, is a different matter altogether. In view of the specificity of Polish ports, shore-side electricity installations should be developed in the first instance in maritime ports of fundamental importance to the national economy, that is, in Gdańsk, Gdynia, Szczecin and Świnoujście. The best way to proceed would be to create a pilot project in one of these ports. It is not economically viable to develop an infrastructure for electricity supply for stationary airplanes.
Hydrogen: There is no hydrogen refuelling infrastructure in Poland, and there is no basis for developing hydrogen refuelling points in the near future.
CNG:Compressed natural gas (CNG) may be used in all types of vehicles equipped with appropriate installations. However, as the maximum range of CNG vehicles is 300 km, this fuel is recommended mainly for short- and medium-distance transport, for example for vehicle fleets used by transport companies, public transport companies and providers of the broadly defined public services (refuse collection, etc.). CNG buses (400 stated in NPF) provide public transport services in 21 cities. The forecast for 2020 is to have 3,000 CNG vehicles on the road and 55,000 for 2025.
LNG: LNG is also used as fuel for urban buses NPF: Wałbrzych was one of the first cities to implement this pilot project, and LNG buses are now also used in Warsaw and Olsztyn. For 2020, 500 LNG vehicles are forecasted, for 2025 around 2,700. Due to insufficient demand, there is currently no need to build fixed LNG bunkering installations in Polish ports. It is enough to use tank trucks or bunker vessels. In order to make such services available, each port should put in place refuelling safety procedures and designate places where such operations may be carried out. While LNG terminals can be used for bunkering vessels, this will be done by means of bunker vessels anyway. It would be too expensive and time-consuming to tow a vessel to a terminal for bunkering.