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Original language: finland npf.pdf
NPF highlights and 2019 NPF reporting on implementation highlights
On this page, we provide relevant information on the topic of alternative fuels vehicles, infrastructure or support measures as provided in the National Policy Framework (NPF) as well as the 2019 Reporting by the Member States on the NPF implementation.
According to Art. 10(1) of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive, each Member State shall submit to the European Commission a report on the implementation of its National Policy Framework on a tri-annual basis, and for the first time by or before 18 November 2019. Those Reports must contain a description of the measures taken in the reporting Member State in support of alternative fuels infrastructure build-up. An overview of the Reports notified by [Member State] and received by the Commission to date is provided here below (download section), including an English translation where applicable.
The highlights for all National Policy Framework follow more or less the same structure: we first explain the modelling approach where one has been provided, we then explain the objectives or key focus areas of the NPF and then provide an overview of the key messages for those alternative fuels with distinct infrastructure requirements for which Member States had to develop national targets according to the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (electricity, hydrogen, LPG, CNG and LNG - therefore not covering for instance biofuels or synthetic fuels. The highlights are extracts from the NPF documents. These highlights should not be considered summaries of the NPFs. For a full and complete overview, we advise to read the NPF documents.
Highlights 2019 Reporting on the NPF implementation
An objective of the national distribution infrastructure programme for alternative propulsion systems in transport was that road transport in Finland would be virtually emissions-free by 2050. Passenger cars and vans would run on electricity or hydrogen produced from either renewable materials or those with zero emissions or biofuels (liquid biofuels and biogas). These would account for almost 100% of the energy used in road transport. By 2030, the share of alternative propulsion systems in road traffic would be at least 40% (double counting of biofuels not included). Because the car fleet in Finland has previously been replaced very slowly overall, once every 15 to 20 years approximately, the aim is for all new passenger cars and vans sold in Finland to be able to use an alternative propulsion system by 2030. The target for 2025 is for 50% of new passenger cars and vans to be able to use some alternative propulsion system, and the target for 2020 is 20%. The objective with heavy-duty vehicles too is for all new trucks and buses to be able to use an alternative propulsion system by 2030. The target for 2025 is for 60% of new trucks and buses to be compatible with an alternative propulsion system, and the target for 2020 is 40%.
Electricity: At the end of September 2019 there were approximately 27 669 plug-in electric vehicles on the road in Finland6. Of these, 25 033 were electric passenger cars (4 204 pure electric and 20 829 plug-in hybrids), and thus the target in the national programme for 2020 has already been achieved in this category. Pure electric vehicles accounted for around 16% of all electric passenger cars in Finland. The figure in the international context is around 60%7. There were 338 electric vans on the road in total, 59 electric buses and two electric trucks. There were around 2 237 other plug-in electric vehicles in use (electric mopeds, electric motor cycles, electric non- road mobile machinery, etc.). In the period January - October 2019, electric vehicles accounted for 5.4% of all new vehicles sold. The share of pure electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids in all imported used vehicles has increased substantially. Between January and September 2019, 2 605 used plug- in hybrids were imported into Finland. The corresponding number for 2018 (January - September) was 893.
In autumn 2019 shore-side power is available at the ports in Helsinki, Oulu and Kemi. It is available in Helsinki for two passenger ferries at the quayside in Katajanokka. The shore-side power system there is tailor-made for Viking Line ships and does not adhere to international standards (several connection cables per vessel and low voltage: 400V, 50Hz). Shore-side power is available to ro-ro vessels at Oulu and Kemi (6.6kV, 50Hz). Besides these, there is, for example, electric power available for freight transport at the port of Turku, although larger vessels that consume electricity cannot be catered for. At the port of Långnäs, in Åland, the ro-ro freight vessel Fjärdvägen uses around 30 MW a month of shore-side power. Shore-side power is planned for the new passenger/car ferry between Vaasa and Umeå, available at both ports. The port of Porvoo is possibly planning a shore-side electric power facility for an Aframax- size tanker ordered by Neste. It will require 8 MW for unloading using shore-side power. The Port of Helsinki has several development plans for the use of shore- side power. In 2020 shore-side electricity (11kV, 50Hz) will be introduced at the South Harbour on the quays used by TallinkSilja’s Silja Serenade and Silja Symphony. Then there will be a quay for high-speed vessels at Jätkäsaari, in Helsinki, where shore-side power may be used overnight for vessels making longer stops. Shore-side electricity will also be available for cruisers. The first shore-side power connection for cruisers should be in use by 2022. Shore-side power is also being planned for the Port of Helsinki cargo terminals as and when required. It all depends on the cost of equipment, electricity and fuel and possible investment aid. There are challenges with the supply of shore-side electric power, especially in the case of cruisers. Individual cruisers need a lot of electric power, easily around 15 MW for large vessels. Furthermore, the cruising season is short and the vessel’s individual systems differ from one another, as is generally the case in international transport.
Hydrogen: There were no specific targets in the national distribution infrastructure programme for numbers of hydrogen vehicles. These were included in the target for electric vehicles (at least 250 000 by 2030). In June 2019 there was just one hydrogen passenger car on the road in Finland. The number did not change between 2016 and 2019. The generalised use of hydrogen vehicles does not seem to be making any market progress in Finland. In Finland in 2016, at the time over drawing up the distribution infrastructure, there were two hydrogen filling stations, one of which was in the harbour of Vuosaari in Helsinki and the other in Voikoski in South Savo. By 2019 there were no longer any public hydrogen filling stations in Finland. It does not seem likely that the network of hydrogen stations will grow in line with the targets set in 2016.
Natural gas: In Finland at the end of September 2019, there were approximately 9 057 vehicles on the road using compressed gas (CNG, CBG) and, furthermore, the first vehicles running on liquefied gas (LNG, LBG) had started to be used. Gas-fuelled passenger cars numbered 8 106 in total, and there were 680 gas-fuelled vans on the road. The targets for 2020 for gas-fuelled passenger cars in the national programme had therefore been achieved. In 2019 a substantial number of gas vehicles were imported into Finland, including used ones, from other countries. Between January and October a total of 1 488 imported gas vehicles were newly registered in Finland. Of that number, 1 342 were passenger cars. Attempts have also been made to increase the number of gas vehicles in Finland by means of what has been called the ‘conversion subsidy’. In all, 102 petrol engine vehicles were converted to gas-fuelled vehicles in Finland in 2018 by means of subsidies paid to their owners. Between January and September 2019, 112 vehicles were converted in this way.
In June 2019, Finland’s LNG infrastructure grew with the completion of an LNG terminal at Tornio. Therefore there is now a second LNG terminal on the west coast in addition to that at Pori, completed in September 2016. The ports of Turku and Rauma have reserved space for LNG terminals, but their construction plans were put on ice a few years ago. Apart from the LNG terminals, several internationally active companies offer ships liquefied natural gas bunkering services in Finland. In such cases it is for the Finnish ports to provide a bunkering location and see generally to safety and security matters. Ship-to-ship bunkering is a better option for shipping companies than truck-to-ship, because the former is quicker and allows for greater quantities of the fuel to be transferred, though with trucks it obviously depends on how many vehicles are used (they can hold 40 tonnes). The LNG infrastructure in the Gulf of Finland will be expanded in 2020, when the LNG terminal at Hamina is completed and the new LNG bunker vessel ordered by Eesti Gaas is ready and starts operations in the area. In 2021, on the Turku-Stockholm route, there will be a new Viking Line LNG passenger/car ferry needing a bunkering facility at Turku.
Highlights NPF (date of adoption: March 2017)
Finland’s national target for road transport in 2050 is near-zero emissions. The target for shipping is a 40% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 as a result of LNG and biofuel use and other measures. In aviation, the target is to bring the share of renewable or other emission-reducing solutions up to 40% as minimum by 2050.
Finland’s target for vehicles using alternative fuels is that all new vehicles sold in Finland are compatible with alternative fuels already in 2030. Vehicles that can be powered by either electricity, hydrogen, natural gas/biogas and/or liquid biofuels, also in high concentrations,1 will be included in the target. The target for 2025 is that 50% of new cars and vans could be powered by an alternative fuel, and the goal for 2020 is a 20% share of these vehicles. The target set for heavy-duty vehicles is that 60% of new trucks and buses would be compatible with an alternative fuel by 2025, with a 40% share already in 2020.
Electricity: The recharging point network in Finland will be proportioned for some 20,000 electric vehicles in 2020 and for a minimum of 250,000 vehicles in 2030. Consequently, a minimum of 2,000 recharging points accessible to the public should be provided in 2020 and 25,000 in 2030. Of the Finnish ports, Helsinki, Oulu and Kemi offer their customers the possibility of using shore-side electricity supply. Shore-side electricity can be used to meet the ship's power needs while in port, eliminating the need to run the vessel’s main or auxiliary engines. Shore- side electricity in ports is an emission and noise free alternative. Of the Finnish airports, Helsinki-Vantaa offers the most comprehensive range of ground power. The target is that the largest Finnish ports would offer facilities for using shore-side electricity supply at the latest in 2030. In practice, the airport provides all permanent bays with a fixed 400 Hz ground power interface, as well as 400/50 Hz sockets to which mobile 28 VDC ground power equipment can be connected. The airport operator also offers mobile equipment. Of the other Finnish airports, bays with a passenger boarding bridge in Oulu and Rovaniemi offer a fixed 400 Hz system. Terminal traffic in ports and at airports should be approaching zero emissions by 2050.
Hydrogen: In late 2015, there was one hydrogen-powered car and two hydrogen refuelling points in Finland. One of these points was located in Vuosaari port in Helsinki and the other in Voikoski, Southern Savo. Both of these are compliant with the general hydrogen refuelling point standards with their fuelling pressures of 350 bar and 700 bar. The number of hydrogen refuelling points would total around 20 in 2030. The number of hydrogen-powered vehicles would be included in the target for electric vehicles.
CNG: The target for gas-powered vehicles is set at a minimum of 5,000 vehicles in 2020 and 50,000 in 2030. The number of gas refuelling points (natural gas and biogas) would be some 50 points in 2020. In July 2016, there were some 1,940 vehicles powered by compressed gas (CNG, CBG) in Finland, and the first liquid gas vehicles (LNG, LBG) had also arrived on the Finnish roads.
LNG: The first public refuelling stations of liquid gas for heavy-duty vehicles in Finland will open in Helsinki and Turku in autumn 2016. Several other LNG stations are being planned. LNG terminals built for shipping needs can also serve heavy-duty vehicles in the future. The first LNG fuelled ship in Finland, Viking Grace, started operating on Baltic Sea passenger services in 2013. Turva, the Border Guard’s LNG-powered ship, has been deployed in various patrol and SARS missions in the Baltic Sea since 2014. Around ten other LNG ships are either in service or on order in Finland: icebreaker Polaris, Tallink Megastar, two ships for ESL-shipping, and six ships for Containership. A network of LNG terminals with a relatively wide coverage will emerge on the Finnish coast in the Bay of Bothnia and Gulf of Finland over the next few years. The first terminals are being built in Pori (completed in autumn 2016) and Tornio (due for completion in 2018), and the following ones probably in Hamina and potentially also in Rauma.