Download the full NPF documents:
English translation: denmark npf.en.pdf
Original language: denmark npf.pdf
Download the National Implementation Report 2019:
NPF highlights and 2019 NPF reporting on implementation highlights
On this page, we provide relevant information on the topic of alternative fuels vehicles, infrastructure or support measures as provided in the National Policy Framework (NPF) as well as the 2019 Reporting by the Member States on the NPF implementation.
According to Art. 10(1) of the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive, each Member State shall submit to the European Commission a report on the implementation of its National Policy Framework on a tri-annual basis, and for the first time by or before 18 November 2019. Those Reports must contain a description of the measures taken in the reporting Member State in support of alternative fuels infrastructure build-up. An overview of the Reports notified by [Member State] and received by the Commission to date is provided here below (download section), including an English translation where applicable.
The highlights for all National Policy Framework follow more or less the same structure: we first explain the modelling approach where one has been provided, we then explain the objectives or key focus areas of the NPF and then provide an overview of the key messages for those alternative fuels with distinct infrastructure requirements for which Member States had to develop national targets according to the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (electricity, hydrogen, LPG, CNG and LNG - therefore not covering for instance biofuels or synthetic fuels. The highlights are extracts from the NPF documents. These highlights should not be considered summaries of the NPFs. For a full and complete overview, we advise to read the NPF documents.
Highlights 2019 Reporting on the NPF implementation
Road transport accounts for three quarters of the total energy consumption by the transport sector and is therefore pivotal in relation to the AFI Directive. Within road transport, conventional petrol- or diesel-powered vehicles continue to dominate, accounting for more than 99% of the total vehicle fleet. However, technological advances will shift the competitive advantages between conventional vehicles and new technologies, including in particular electric technology, but improvements to engines for gas- powered operation may also be of significance as regards market trends. The number of kilometres travelled by cars is expected to rise by 1.97% per year through to 2030, whilst the corresponding figure for light goods vehicles is expected to increase by 0.86% per year, trucks by 1.38% per year and buses by 0.47% per year. However, the increase in the number of kilometres travelled will be almost entirely offset by the vehicles becoming more energy-efficient over the period. Total energy consumption by the transport sector is therefore expected to rise by just 0.2% annually through to 2030, by which time the total energy consumption by the transport sector is expected to have reached 223 PJ.
The proportion of fossil fuels in the transport sector’s energy consumption is expected to drop from 95% in 2017 to approximately 92% in 2030. Sales of electric vehicles are expected to rise steadily and will account for around 22% of all new car sales and almost 9% of the collective fleet of cars and light goods vehicles in 2030. Electricity consumption by the transport sector is expected to rise by around 13% annually through to 2030.
Electricity: In the Baseline projection 2019, total electricity consumption by the transport sector was set at 1.84 PJ in 2019 and is expected to rise to a total of 7.51 PJ in 2030, of which 0.28 PJ and 3.63 PJ are used for road transport in 2019 and 2030 respective, equivalent to 15% and 48%. The increase in the consumption of electricity for road transport primarily stems from growth in the use of electric cars and light goods vehicles. At the end of 2018, the fleet of electric vehicles comprised around 16,000 battery-powered vehicles, of which 5,000 were plug-in hybrid vehicles and 900 electric and plug-in hybrid light goods vehicles.
According to the Baseline projection 2019, there are expected to be a total of approximately 300,000 electric cars and light goods vehicles in 2030.
Battery-powered electric ferries have been introduced in recent years on certain routes. This includes the ferry ‘Ellen’, which sails between Fynshav and Ærø, and Tycho Brahe and Aurora, which have been converted from diesel to electric, and sail between Helsingør and Helsingborg. Over the coming years, Scandlines is also planning to convert two ferries on the Rødby-Puttgarden route to electricity, while the Thyborøn-Agger ferry will be converted to electric operation later in the year. Finally, Arriva has planned seven electric harbour buses, and two of the ferries used for canal tours and Haderslev Dambåd are electrically powered.
Shore-side electricity supply: All Danish ports have established shore-side electricity supply installations for use by ships which require a limited power supply.
However, it is difficult to make a financial case for deploying shore-side electricity supply installations, e.g. for use by cruise ships with substantial power supply needs, and shore-side electricity supply installations for use by such ships are therefore not yet widespread in Denmark. In 2019, the Port of Faaborg became the first commercial port to deploy a shore-side electricity supply. In 2019, the Port of Grenå deployed a mobile shore-side electricity capable of supplying 2 MW. As part of the EU-supported ‘Skandinavisk Elektrisk Transport System’ project, the ports of Skagen, Hirtshals and Frederikshavn are to be electrified and have shore-side electricity supplies installed over the next three years. It has also been decided that the Copenhagen to Oslo ferry will be connected to a shore-side electricity supply when docked.
Hydrogen: According to Statistics Denmark, there are currently 85 cars in Denmark which run on hydrogen, and development is therefore still in a trial phase and the technology has not yet broken through into the market.
LPG: LPG is currently only used to a limited extent (fleet = 24 vehicles) in Denmark and four refuelling facilities are currently available. It is expected that LPG will be phased out of the transport sector completely through to 2030 and that there will be no demand for LPG refuelling stations.
Natural gas (CNG): The current fleet of gas vehicles in Denmark comprises 130 cars, 138 light goods vehicles, 154 buses and 156 trucks. The fleet has steadily increased in size over the period. Gas-powered heavy goods vehicles also include refuse collection vehicles, which are used in many cities. There are currently 17 natural gas refuelling points spread across the country. It is anticipated that the existing refuelling point capacity will be sufficient to meet the rising demand for CNG in the transport sector, and the objective is therefore to maintain the number of CNG refuelling points at the current level through to 2030. Denmark fulfils the guideline indication of the AFI Directive concerning deployment within the Member States by 2020 of CNG refuelling points for every 150 km along the TEN-T road network.
Natural gas (LNG): There are currently no vehicles registered in Denmark which use LNG as fuel. No refuelling points for LNG have yet been established along the TEN-T road network, and it is therefore not possible to refuel vehicles with LNG in Denmark. There is currently a strong focus on the deployment of LNG for transport in a number of Denmark’s neighbouring countries, and it can be expected that, in the years to come, there will be LNG vehicles using Denmark as a transit country, and that Danish and foreign LNG vehicles will be used for the transport of goods by road to and from Denmark. A market is therefore expected to emerge for the deployment of a number of LNG refuelling points at hubs in the Danish road infrastructure, which could for example include LNG refuelling points around Aalborg, the Triangle Region and Copenhagen.
In Denmark, two LNG bunkering facilities have so far been deployed in Denmark: one at the Port of Hirtshals and one at the Port of Hou. The facility at the Port of Hou is only used by the Samsø Ferry. The two Hirtshals Fjord Lines ferries also use LNG, but both refuel in Norway.
Highlights NPF (date of adoption: February 2017)
The Government’s long-term goal for 2050 is for Denmark to be a low-emissions society that is independent of fossil fuels. It covers all sectors. The switching of public transport buses from conventional fuels to alternative fuels is typically governed by local political choices. The transport companies are responsible for the political choices being converted to procurement of more environmentally friendly buses, which is typically achieved by putting greater emphasis on environmental aspects in public tenders.
Electricity: Based on the Danish Energy Agency’s baseline projection, a total number of around 30,000 electric cars is expected in Denmark in 2020. This figure is expected to rise to around 65,000 in 2025. More specifically, it is expected that it will be possible to ensure continued supply with at least one publicly available recharging point per 10 electric cars through the primarily market-driven deployment of recharging points for electric cars.
An initiative has already been taken to lower the electricity tax on shore-side electricity supply. The framework conditions for establishing shore-side electricity supply have thus recently improved. No further initiatives will therefore be taken, and shore-side electricity supply will only be established if private investors judge that it should be implemented. The deployment of a shore-side electricity supply was included in considerations in connection with the expansion of the Port of Copenhagen around Nordhavn, but the investment was not deemed to be profitable.
The three largest airports, Copenhagen Airport, Billund Airport and Aalborg, which account for more than 97% of all passenger flights, have already established an electricity supply for stationary aircraft.
Hydrogen: There is a small fleet of hydrogen vehicles in Denmark. There are also a limited number of refuelling facilities for hydrogen which are, however, very well deployed in relation to the number of vehicles. These hydrogen vehicles are primarily purchased through public procurement and tender procedures.
The costs of hydrogen vehicles and infrastructure for refuelling of hydrogen vehicles are higher at present than the costs of the other alternative fuels. As it is not deemed possible to reduce costs to a reasonable level before 2025, hydrogen is not currently included in Government policy on the availability of alternative fuels.
CNG: There is a very limited number of vehicles in Denmark that can use compressed natural gas as their fuel. No significant commercial sales to private individuals of vehicles of this type are expected in the period up to 2020 and 2025. Addition of gas vehicles to the vehicles on the road is, however, expected through public procurement and tenders. These are buses in public transport and specially equipped vehicles, for example for refuse collection.
LNG: LNG is not used at present for road transport in Denmark. In consideration of possible users of LNG vehicles from other countries travelling to somewhere in Denmark, or who are transiting through Denmark, it may be desirable in the longer term for a basic refuelling infrastructure for LNG to be deployed along the TEN-T road network in Denmark.
LNG installations are in place or have been decided upon at three ports in Denmark. None of these is in the TEN-T Core Network. The ports concerned are those of Hirtshals, Frederikshavn and Hou (solely for the use of the Samsø ferry), the first two of which are on the combined TEN-T network. In addition, there are a number of ports that have prepared a financial sustainability analysis prior to investment in LNG installations. These include the following ports: Aarhus, Copenhagen, Esbjerg, Fredericia, Rønne and Orehoved. In order to promote the establishment of LNG refuelling points, Denmark stresses that development is market-driven.