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Gross Domestic Product (in billion EUR)
€ 524.62
Total land area (km2)
30510 km2
Passenger cars
Highway (km)
1763 km
PEV Market Share
Gross Domestic Product Capita (in EUR)
€ 46595.61
NPF summary


On this page, we provide relevant information on the topic of alternative fuels vehicles, infrastructure or support measures as provided in the National Policy Framework (NPF), in principle as an extract from the NPF, with some additions to give context where necessary. These highlights should not be considered summaries of the NPFs. For a full and  complete overview, we  advise to read the NPF document itself

The highlights for all National Policy Framework follow more or less the same structure: we first explain the modelling approach where one has been provided, we then explain the objectives or key focus areas of the NPF and then provide an overview of the key messages for those alternative fuels with distinct infrastructure requirements for which Member States had to develop national targets according to the Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive (electricity, hydrogen, LPG, CNG and LNG - therefore not covering for instance LPG, biofuels or synthetic fuels. 


NPF date of adoption: November 2016 (Updated Wallonia region: February 2017)

Given the complex institutional context in Belgium, the Regions of Belgium (i.e. Flemish Region, Walloon Region & Brussels-Capital Region) are competent for most aspects of Directive 2014/94. Accordingly, the national policy framework consists of Regional NPFs and a Federal NPF. Estimates for AF vehicle fleets 2020 are provided for EVs (88,000 of which 74,700 in Flanders) and CNG cars (43,000 of which 41,200 in Flanders). 

The Flemish Action Plan, approved by the Flemish Government, focuses primarily on a breakthrough for electric vehicles (including fuel cell vehicles) and also offers opportunities to vehicles and vessels running on natural gas and shore-side electricity to develop. 

Wallonia has currently not taken a position on possible targets for vehicles and related infrastructure. The Walloon action framework will focus principally on a ‘business as usual’ (BAU) scenario. The choice of a BAU scenario is based on Wallonia's socio-economic realities, geographical context and potential related to the type of mobility. 

The Brussels Capital Region (BCR) is facing important challenges in improving local air quality. In addition, the BCR also wishes to encourage the use of alternative fuels, and especially electricity. The BCR does not however wish to lose sight of the fact that the replacement of vehicles by electric or CNG vehicles is not a solution to the other nuisance they cause, such as congestion, occupation of space, traffic accidents, etc.

Electricity: At present, electricity offers the best prospects in the search for low-carbon, environmentally-friendly mobility by 2050, certainly in combination with renewable sources of energy (Flanders region). To stimulate the transition towards electric transport, the BCR has already taken different measures, e.g. quota on electric cars in the public fleets, financial support for small and medium-sized enterprises to purchase hybrid, electric and fuel cell vehicles, electric taxis, etc. The public transport company in the BCR (STIB – MIVB) is also preparing the transition towards electric buses, following a test period with 3 fully electric bus lines. Shore-side electricity (SSE or OPS) for shipping is available in a number of ports for seagoing vessels and inland ships, for example the port of Brussels targets 3 installations for SSE.

Hydrogen: Fuel cell vehicles in theory and in the future present a number of the advantages of battery electric vehicles, but without the limited driving distance. In practice, the technology must become cheaper and it is important whether hydrogen can be produced in an environmentally friendly manner. 

CNG:can in the meantime contribute to ensuring that the fleet rapidly becomes more environmentally friendly and is also more easily applicable for larger vehicles and vessels (trucks, ships, etc.). CNG for cars is besides electric vehicles the only AF where vehicles estimates and ambitions are mentioned.

LNG:As regards LNG in road and inland waterway transport, Wallonia will mainly rely on calls for tender within the framework of the Trans-European Transport Network’s Connecting Europe Facility. LNG refuelling is planned for all maritime ports in the TEN-T Core Network and several inland ports. Furthermore, at least 2 LNG refuelling points for heavy-duty vehicles are targeted in the ports of Antwerp and Oostende. 

NPF explained

In accordance with Article 3 of Directive 2014/94/EU (Alternative Fuels Infrastructure Directive), Member States were obliged to adopt National Policy Frameworks (NPFs) and report them to the European Commission by 18 November 2016. NPFs should include national targets for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure in the respective Member State.

The Directive furthermore sets (qualitative) requirements for the roll-out of infrastructure for recharging electric vehicles in urban and suburban areas and refueling natural gas vehicles in urban and suburban areas and on the TEN-T core network. It also contains provisions for LNG infrastructure on the core network and in (inland and maritime) ports. It is largely in the discretion of Member States to set requirements for hydrogen infrastructure through the NPFs. The recitals of the Directive recommend some specific metrics for the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure, while others have been suggested by the Commission in its assessment of the NPFs.

Under the reporting obligations of the Directive, the Commission is tasked with assessing the overall relevance and effectiveness of NPFs and their coherence at Union level. The assessment of the deployment of infrastructure along the TEN-T network is of particular relevance.

For that reason, EAFO is now publishing the integral text of the National Policy Frameworks, including an English translation where necessary, and an overview of the most important features of the National Policy Frameworks (see Downloads & Highlights). Furthermore, we also track progress towards meeting the targets established therein (see Targets and Progress).

Please note that the National Policy Frameworks have been formally assessed by the European Commission. The result of this work is available here:

More information: