Biomethane for transport is one of the biofuels for which the statistics are reported by EAFO.
Biogas is a mixture of biomethane CH4 (65-70%) and CO2 (30-35%) and small amounts of other gases. It is created by anaerobic digestion of organic wastes such as sewage, manure, food wastes, landfill, etc. This is an established technology. After removal of contaminants, biomethane is the same as natural gas, and can be used as a transport fuel in the form of Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) or Compressed Natural Gas (CNG).
Bio-SNG (Bio Synthetic Natural Gas) is produced by gasification of lignocellulosic (woody materials). A number of Bio-SNG demonstration projects are discussed on the Bio-SNG page of this website.
Biogas may also be produced form lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as straw, following pre-treatment with steam and enzymes. See VERBIO straw project.
Anaerobic Digestion technology is well established, hence biogas is often categorised as a 'first generation' biofuel. However, biogas derived from organic wastes does not compete with food production, and is considered to be sustainable and an “Advanced Biofuel”.
EU PROJECTS RELATED TO USE OF BIOMETHANE IN TRANSPORT IN EUROPE
Green Gas Grids
Baltic Biogas Bus
Liquefied biogas as a transport fuel in Sweden.
In Summer 2012, a new liquefied biogas plant in Lidköping, Sweden, started operation. The plant produces transport fuel for cars, trucks and buses, in both gaseous and liquefied form, and is run by Lidköping Biogas AB. Orignally owned by Göteborg Energi AB and the Municipality of Lidköping, with Swedish Biogas International Lidköping AB owning and operating the biogas production plant. It has since been sold to Fordonsgas a subsidiary of Air Liquide, France.
Liquid biomethane from landfill to fuel commercial delivery vehicles in the UK
The UK's largest retailer, Tesco, is commissioning 25 Iveco EcoDaily light commercial vehicles fuelled by sustainable liquid biomethane for its online retail and delivery service tesco.com. The fuel is made by UK company, Gasrec (the first commercial producer of Liquid Biomethane in Europe), and is created by extracting naturally occurring methane from organic waste in landfill sites and converting it to a high quality, clean fuel. [Source: Gasrec].
BioPropane or BioLPG
In 2018, Neste has started up the world’s first large-scale renewable propane production facility in Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The renewable propane will marketed and sold as BioLPG. Neste’s new facility has a production capacity of 40,000 tonnes per year. BioLPG can be used within a full range of existing LPG applications, from transport and commercial heating to retail leisure cylinders. The Rotterdam refinery primarily produces Neste’s renewable diesel using various waste and residues as well as vegetable oils for feedstock. The new unit will purify and separate renewable propane from the sidestream gases produced by the refinery.
The new unit will purify and separate biopropane from the sidestream gases produced by the refinery. The process will increase the added value of this sidestream significantly, as the gas in question has been sold as fuel for power plant use up until now. When the new unit is complete, biopropane production is expected to total 30,000-40,000 t/a. Biopropane has a comparable set of properties to fossil propane and is suitable for use in existing liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) applications [Source: Neste Oil].