All results shown below stem from the decision support models of the Incentives for Cleaner Vehicles in Urban Europe project. Please refer to these tools for a comprehensive TCO analysis that is tailored to your (fleet) vehicles. The registration and usage of these tools is absolutely free of charge.

Policy maker tool

What effects could the change of policy measures have on the utility of petrol, diesel and electric vehicles in your country? Select a base country, annual mileage and fleet type, combine taxation items from different countries and add new incentive measures for EVs: The calculations show utilities of different vehicle sizes for the selected item combination. The vehicle utility considers the Total Cost of Ownership, vehicle acceleration, CO2 emissions, cost for the driver and emissions of local pollutants.




Fleet manager comparison tool


The depreciation cost the list price (with or without VAT, depending on corporate or private ownership and the country), direct incentives (depending on the country and powertrain type), purchase taxes (depending on the country and powertrain type) and a modelled resale value (depending on the chosen annual mileage and an assumed ownership period of 4 years). The depreciation cost are calculated according to: listPrice - incentives + purchaseTax - resaleValue

Energy cost are based on the historic developments of fuel price and energy prices in the respective country in combination with an expected oil price development taken from the International Energy Agency World Energy Outlook and national fuel taxes. The energy cost are not considered for car rental companies or company cars with private use. In these cases the fuel cost are added to the costs for the driver. VAT are considered only if a private person pays for the fuel, i.e. in case of private ownership, car rental companies or privately used company cars.

Motor taxes are based on the country-specific regulations.

These cost include maintenance and repair cost for the ownership period and depend on the annual mileage.

Rates for a fully comprehensive insurance. The rates are based on a middle-aged male driver with some driving experience living in an urban region. Actual rates may differ in dependence of your region, age, sex, driving experience or other parameters. For car rental companies it is assumed that insurance cost are relayed to the driver and not payed for by the owning company.

If a company allows private usage of a company car further taxes apply to the company. The regulations are country-specific and may include additional contributions to national insurances or supplementary payments of deducted VAT.

Expenses for the operation and depreciation of vehicles reduce the company profit and thus lower corresponding profit taxes. These savings are calculated based on national averages of company profit taxes and consider country-specific regulations. Note that actual savings may depend on the size, age and actual profit of the company. This item is not applicable to private vehicle ownership.

The limited range of battery electric vehicles and inconveniences of charging, e.g. its long duration and the required trip planning effort, represent major barriers of electric mobility. Since in corporate vehicle fleets other vehicles might be available at no additional cost, these rental costs are only considered for private vehicle ownership. The costs consider the statistical frequency of long-range trips based on the chosen annual mileage and average daily rental costs for conventionally powered vehicle of the same size.

The total cost of ownership (TCO) consider all of the above costs and benefits for the owner, not including the cost of the driver.

Well to wheel CO2 emissions for the vehicle consider not only the emissions from the vehicle itself, but also those stemming from the production and distribution of the fuel and electricity. For the latter the energy mix of the corresponding country is considered.

“Other fixed costs”: These costs reflect all other costs except depreciation and cover cost for insurance, motor tax and corporate costs for the private use of company cars.

“Other variable cost”: These cost reflect other variable costs other than energy cost and cover costs for maintenance and repair as well as rental cost for the replacement of battery electric vehicles on long-range trips.

The costs payed for by the driver depend on the selected company type. For private ownership the driver is assumed to be also the owner and all costs are imposed on the owner. For company cars with private usage, these costs include energy cost and benefit in kind rates for the vehicle. For car rental companies, it is assumed that insurance cost and energy cost are relayed to the driver and not payed for by the owning company.